Appendix A: CURL Documentation

CueServer uses the standard Linux CURL tool as part if its implementation of the WRITE command.

Use WRITE with the URL option to cause CueServer to use CURL to send an HTTP request to another device on the network. For example:

WRITE URL "http://10.0.1.5/cgi-bin/request"

The above example sends an HTTP request to 10.0.1.5 to GET the /cgi-bin/request URL.

The CURL tool contains a large amount of options that can be used to customize the request in many ways. It is beyond the scope of this manual to teach all of the various options available through CURL, but the CURL documentation is included below for reference. You can use these options to modify the HTTP request or to switch the request to various other protocols.

curl(1)                                    Curl Manual                                    curl(1)

NAME
       curl - transfer a URL

SYNOPSIS
       curl [options] [URL...]

DESCRIPTION
       curl  is a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the supported protocols
       (DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS, IMAP, IMAPS, LDAP, LDAPS, POP3, POP3S,  RTMP,
       RTSP,  SCP,  SFTP, SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP).  The command is designed to work without
       user interaction.

       curl offers a busload of useful  tricks  like  proxy  support,  user  authentication,  FTP
       upload,  HTTP  post,  SSL connections, cookies, file transfer resume and more. As you will
       see below, the number of features will make your head spin!

       curl is powered by libcurl for all transfer-related features. See libcurl(3) for details.

URL
       The URL syntax is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed description in RFC 3986.

       You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs by writing part sets within braces as in:

        http://site.{one,two,three}.com

       or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:

        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt
        ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)
        ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt

       Nested sequences are not supported, but you can use several ones next to each other:

        http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html

       You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line. They will be fetched in a  sequen-
       tial manner in the specified order.

       You can specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number or letter:

        http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt
        http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt

       If  you  specify  URL without protocol:// prefix, curl will attempt to guess what protocol
       you might want. It will then default to HTTP but try other protocols based  on  often-used
       host  name prefixes. For example, for host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you
       want to speak FTP.

       curl will do its best to use what you pass to it as a URL. It is not trying to validate it
       as  a  syntactically  correct  URL  by  any means but is instead very liberal with what it
       accepts.

       Curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so that getting  many
       files  from  the  same  server  will  not do multiple connects / handshakes. This improves
       speed. Of course this is only done on files specified on a single command line and  cannot
       be used between separate curl invokes.

PROGRESS METER
       curl normally displays a progress meter during operations, indicating the amount of trans-
       ferred data, transfer speeds and estimated time left, etc.

       curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so if you invoke curl to do an  opera-
       tion and it is about to write data to the terminal, it disables the progress meter as oth-
       erwise it would mess up the output mixing progress meter and response data.

       If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT  requests,  you  need  to  redirect  the
       response output to a file, using shell redirect (>), -o [file] or similar.

       It  is  not  the same case for FTP upload as that operation does not spit out any response
       data to the terminal.

       If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, -# is your friend.

OPTIONS
       In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option  and  yet  again  disabled  with
       --no-option.  That  is,  you use the exact same option name but prefix it with "no-". How-
       ever, in this list we mostly only list and show the --option version of them.  (This  con-
       cept with --no options was added in 7.19.0. Previously most options were toggled on/off on
       repeated use of the same command line option.)

       -#, --progress-bar
              Make curl display progress as a simple progress bar instead of the  standard,  more
              informational, meter.

       -0, --http1.0
              (HTTP) Forces curl to issue its requests using HTTP 1.0 instead of using its inter-
              nally preferred: HTTP 1.1.

       -1, --tlsv1
              (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1 when negotiating with a remote TLS server.

       -2, --sslv2
              (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating with a remote SSL server.

       -3, --sslv3
              (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating with a remote SSL server.

       -4, --ipv4
              If libcurl is capable of resolving an address to multiple IP versions (which it  is
              if  it  is  IPv6-capable),  this  option  tells  libcurl  to  resolve names to IPv4
              addresses only.

       -6, --ipv6
              If libcurl is capable of resolving an address to multiple IP versions (which it  is
              if  it  is  IPv6-capable),  this  option  tells  libcurl  to  resolve names to IPv6
              addresses only.  default statistics.

       -a, --append
              (FTP/SFTP) When used in an upload, this will tell curl to append to the target file
              instead  of  overwriting  it.  If the file doesn't exist, it will be created.  Note
              that this flag is ignored by some SSH servers (including OpenSSH).

       -A, --user-agent <agent string>
              (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.  Some  badly  done
              CGIs fail if this field isn't set to "Mozilla/4.0". To encode blanks in the string,
              surround the string with single quote marks. This can also  be  set  with  the  -H,
              --header option of course.

              If this option is set more than once, the last one will be the one that's used.

       --anyauth
              (HTTP)  Tells  curl to figure out authentication method by itself, and use the most
              secure one the remote site claims to support. This is done by first doing a request
              and  checking  the response-headers, thus possibly inducing an extra network round-
              trip. This is used instead of setting a specific authentication method,  which  you
              can do with --basic, --digest, --ntlm, and --negotiate.

              Note that using --anyauth is not recommended if you do uploads from stdin, since it
              may require data to be sent twice and then the client must be able  to  rewind.  If
              the need should arise when uploading from stdin, the upload operation will fail.

       -b, --cookie <name=data>
              (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server as a cookie. It is supposedly the data pre-
              viously received from the server in a "Set-Cookie:" line.  The data  should  be  in
              the format "NAME1=VALUE1; NAME2=VALUE2".

              If  no  '='  symbol is used in the line, it is treated as a filename to use to read
              previously stored cookie lines from, which should be used in this session  if  they
              match.  Using  this  method also activates the "cookie parser" which will make curl
              record incoming cookies too, which may be handy if you're using this in combination
              with  the  -L,  --location option. The file format of the file to read cookies from
              should be plain HTTP headers or the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format.

              NOTE that the file specified with -b, --cookie is only used as  input.  No  cookies
              will  be  stored  in the file. To store cookies, use the -c, --cookie-jar option or
              you could even save the HTTP headers to a file using -D, --dump-header!

              If this option is set more than once, the last one will be the one that's used.

       -B, --use-ascii
              Enable ASCII transfer when using FTP or LDAP. For FTP, this can also be enforced by
              using an URL that ends with ";type=A". This option causes data sent to stdout to be
              in text mode for win32 systems.

       --basic
              (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication. This is the  default  and  this
              option  is usually pointless, unless you use it to override a previously set option
              that sets a different authentication method (such as --ntlm, --digest, or --negoti-
              ate).

       -c, --cookie-jar <file name>
              Specify  to  which file you want curl to write all cookies after a completed opera-
              tion. Curl writes all cookies previously read from a specified file as well as  all
              cookies  received  from  remote server(s). If no cookies are known, no file will be
              written. The file will be written using the Netscape cookie file format. If you set
              the file name to a single dash, "-", the cookies will be written to stdout.

              This command line option will activate the cookie engine that makes curl record and
              use cookies. Another way to activate it is to use the -b, --cookie option.

              If the cookie jar can't be created or written to, the whole  curl  operation  won't
              fail  or  even  report an error clearly. Using -v will get a warning displayed, but
              that is the only visible feedback you get about this possibly lethal situation.

              If this option is used several times, the last specified file name will be used.

       -C, --continue-at <offset>
              Continue/Resume a previous file transfer at the given offset. The given  offset  is
              the  exact number of bytes that will be skipped, counting from the beginning of the
              source file before it is transferred to the destination.  If used with uploads, the
              FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.

              Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out where/how to resume the transfer.
              It then uses the given output/input files to figure that out.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --ciphers <list of ciphers>
              (SSL) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list  of  ciphers  must
              specify   valid  ciphers.  Read  up  on  SSL  cipher  list  details  on  this  URL:
              http://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html

              NSS ciphers are done differently than OpenSSL and GnuTLS.  The  full  list  of  NSS
              ciphers  is  in  the NSSCipherSuite entry at this URL: http://directory.fedora.red-
              hat.com/docs/mod_nss.html#Directives

              If this option is used several times, the last one will override the others.

       --compressed
              (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms libcurl  supports,
              and save the uncompressed document.  If this option is used and the server sends an
              unsupported encoding, curl will report an error.

       --connect-timeout <seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow the connection to the server to take.   This
              only limits the connection phase, once curl has connected this option is of no more
              use. See also the -m, --max-time option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --create-dirs
              When used in conjunction with the -o option, curl will create the  necessary  local
              directory  hierarchy  as needed. This option creates the dirs mentioned with the -o
              option, nothing else. If the -o file name uses no dir or if the  dirs  it  mentions
              already exist, no dir will be created.

              To create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try --ftp-create-dirs.

       --crlf (FTP) Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).

       --crlfile <file>
              (HTTPS/FTPS)  Provide  a  file  using PEM format with a Certificate Revocation List
              that may specify peer certificates that are to be considered revoked.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (Added in 7.19.7)

       -d, --data <data>
              (HTTP) Sends the specified data in a POST request to the HTTP server, in  the  same
              way that a browser does when a user has filled in an HTML form and presses the sub-
              mit button. This will cause curl to pass the data to the server using the  content-
              type application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.

              -d,  --data  is  the  same  as --data-ascii. To post data purely binary, you should
              instead use the --data-binary option. To URL-encode the value of a form  field  you
              may use --data-urlencode.

              If  any  of these options is used more than once on the same command line, the data
              pieces specified will be merged together with a separating  &-symbol.  Thus,  using
              '-d  name=daniel  -d  skill=lousy'  would  generate  a  post  chunk that looks like
              'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a file name to read the
              data  from, or - if you want curl to read the data from stdin.  The contents of the
              file must already be URL-encoded. Multiple files can  also  be  specified.  Posting
              data from a file named 'foobar' would thus be done with --data @foobar.

       -D, --dump-header <file>
              Write the protocol headers to the specified file.

              This  option  is  handy  to use when you want to store the headers that a HTTP site
              sends to you. Cookies from the headers could then be read in a second curl  invoca-
              tion  by  using  the  -b, --cookie option! The -c, --cookie-jar option is however a
              better way to store cookies.

              When used in FTP, the FTP server response lines are considered being "headers"  and
              thus are saved there.

              If  this option is used several times, the last one will be used.  IP "--data-ascii
              <data>" See -d, --data.

       --data-binary <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data exactly as specified with no extra processing whatsoever.

              If you start the data with the letter @, the rest should be a  filename.   Data  is
              posted in a similar manner as --data-ascii does, except that newlines are preserved
              and conversions are never done.

              If this option is used several times, the ones following the first will append data
              as described in -d, --data.

       --data-urlencode <data>
              (HTTP) This posts data, similar to the other --data options with the exception that
              this performs URL-encoding. (Added in 7.18.0)

              To be CGI-compliant, the <data> part should begin with a name followed by a separa-
              tor and a content specification. The <data> part can be passed to curl using one of
              the following syntaxes:

              content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that on. Just be careful
                     so  that  the  content doesn't contain any = or @ symbols, as that will then
                     make the syntax match one of the other cases below!

              =content
                     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that on. The preceding =
                     symbol is not included in the data.

              name=content
                     This  will make curl URL-encode the content part and pass that on. Note that
                     the name part is expected to be URL-encoded already.

              @filename
                     This will make curl load data from the given file (including any  newlines),
                     URL-encode that data and pass it on in the POST.

              name@filename
                     This  will make curl load data from the given file (including any newlines),
                     URL-encode that data and pass it on in the POST. The name part gets an equal
                     sign appended, resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note that the name
                     is expected to be URL-encoded already.

       --delegation LEVEL
              Set LEVEL to tell the server what it is allowed to delegate when it comes  to  user
              credentials. Used with GSS/kerberos.

              none   Don't allow any delegation.

              policy Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag is set in the Kerberos ser-
                     vice ticket, which is a matter of realm policy.

              always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.

       --digest
              (HTTP) Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is a authentication  that  prevents
              the  password  from being sent over the wire in clear text. Use this in combination
              with the normal -u, --user option to set user name and password. See  also  --ntlm,
              --negotiate and --anyauth for related options.

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences make no difference.

       --disable-eprt
              (FTP)  Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands when doing active
              FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first  attempt  to  use  EPRT,  then  LPRT
              before using PORT, but with this option, it will use PORT right away. EPRT and LPRT
              are extensions to the original FTP protocol, and may not work on all  servers,  but
              they enable more functionality in a better way than the traditional PORT command.

              --eprt  can  be  used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt is an alias for
              --disable-eprt.

              Disabling EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want to switch  to  passive
              mode you need to not use -P, --ftp-port or force it with --ftp-pasv.

       --disable-epsv
              (FTP)  Tell  curl  to  disable  the  use of the EPSV command when doing passive FTP
              transfers. Curl will normally always first attempt to use  EPSV  before  PASV,  but
              with this option, it will not try using EPSV.

              --epsv  can  be  used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv is an alias for
              --disable-epsv.

              Disabling EPSV only changes the passive behavior. If you want to switch  to  active
              mode you need to use -P, --ftp-port.

       -e, --referer <URL>
              (HTTP)  Sends  the  "Referer Page" information to the HTTP server. This can also be
              set with the -H, --header flag of course.  When used with -L,  --location  you  can
              append ";auto" to the --referer URL to make curl automatically set the previous URL
              when it follows a Location: header. The ";auto" string can be used alone,  even  if
              you don't set an initial --referer.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -E, --cert <certificate[:password]>
              (SSL)  Tells  curl to use the specified client certificate file when getting a file
              with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based protocol. The certificate must be in PEM for-
              mat.   If the optional password isn't specified, it will be queried for on the ter-
              minal. Note that this option assumes a "certificate" file that is the  private  key
              and  the  private  certificate  concatenated!  See --cert and --key to specify them
              independently.

              If curl is built against the NSS SSL library then this option  can  tell  curl  the
              nickname  of the certificate to use within the NSS database defined by the environ-
              ment variable SSL_DIR (or by default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS PEM PKCS#11 module
              (libnsspem.so) is available then PEM files may be loaded. If you want to use a file
              from the current directory, please precede it with "./" prefix, in order  to  avoid
              confusion with a nickname.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --engine <name>
              Select the OpenSSL crypto engine to use for cipher operations. Use --engine list to
              print a list of build-time supported engines. Note that not all (or  none)  of  the
              engines may be available at run-time.

       --environment
              (RISC OS ONLY) Sets a range of environment variables, using the names the -w option
              supports, to allow easier extraction of useful information after having run curl.

       --egd-file <file>
              (SSL) Specify the path name to the Entropy Gathering Daemon socket. The  socket  is
              used  to  seed  the  random  engine for SSL connections. See also the --random-file
              option.

       --cert-type <type>
              (SSL) Tells curl what certificate type the provided certificate is in. PEM, DER and
              ENG are recognized types.  If not specified, PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --cacert <CA certificate>
              (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify the peer. The file
              may contain multiple CA certificates. The certificate(s) must  be  in  PEM  format.
              Normally  curl is built to use a default file for this, so this option is typically
              used to alter that default file.

              curl recognizes the environment variable named 'CURL_CA_BUNDLE' if it is  set,  and
              uses the given path as a path to a CA cert bundle. This option overrides that vari-
              able.

              The windows version of curl will automatically look  for  a  CA  certs  file  named
              'curl-ca-bundle.crt',  either  in the same directory as curl.exe, or in the Current
              Working Directory, or in any folder along your PATH.

              If curl is built against the NSS SSL library then this option tells curl the  nick-
              name  of  the CA certificate to use within the NSS database defined by the environ-
              ment variable SSL_DIR (or by default /etc/pki/nssdb).  If the NSS PEM PKCS#11  mod-
              ule (libnsspem.so) is available then PEM files may be loaded.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --capath <CA certificate directory>
              (SSL)  Tells  curl  to  use the specified certificate directory to verify the peer.
              Multiple  paths   can   be   provided   by   separating   them   with   ":"   (e.g.
              "path1:path2:path3").  The certificates must be in PEM format, and if curl is built
              against OpenSSL, the directory must have been processed using the c_rehash  utility
              supplied  with  OpenSSL. Using --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered curl to make SSL-
              connections much more efficiently than using --cacert if the --cacert file contains
              many CA certificates.

              If  this option is set, the default capath value will be ignored, and if it is used
              several times, the last one will be used.

       -f, --fail
              (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server errors. This is  mostly  done  to
              better enable scripts etc to better deal with failed attempts. In normal cases when
              a HTTP server fails to deliver a document, it returns an HTML document  stating  so
              (which  often  also  describes why and more). This flag will prevent curl from out-
              putting that and return error 22.

              This method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where non-successful  response
              codes will slip through, especially when authentication is involved (response codes
              401 and 407).

       -F, --form <name=content>
              (HTTP) This lets curl emulate a filled-in form in which a user has pressed the sub-
              mit  button.  This  causes curl to POST data using the Content-Type multipart/form-
              data according to RFC 2388. This enables uploading of binary files  etc.  To  force
              the  'content'  part to be a file, prefix the file name with an @ sign. To just get
              the content part from a file, prefix the file name with the symbol <.  The  differ-
              ence between @ and < is then that @ makes a file get attached in the post as a file
              upload, while the < makes a text field and just get  the  contents  for  that  text
              field from a file.

              Example,  to send your password file to the server, where 'password' is the name of
              the form-field to which /etc/passwd will be the input:

              curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com

              To read content from stdin instead of a file, use - as the filename. This goes  for
              both @ and < constructs.

              You can also tell curl what Content-Type to use by using 'type=', in a manner simi-
              lar to:

              curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com

              or

              curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com

              You can also explicitly change the name field of a  file  upload  part  by  setting
              filename=, like this:

              curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" url.com

              See further examples and details in the MANUAL.

              This option can be used multiple times.

       --ftp-account [data]
              (FTP)  When  an FTP server asks for "account data" after user name and password has
              been provided, this data is sent off using the ACCT command. (Added in 7.13.0)

              If this option is used twice, the second will override the previous use.

       --ftp-alternative-to-user <command>
              (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and PASS commands fails, send  this  command.
              When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's Secure Transport server over FTPS using a client
              certificate, using "SITE AUTH" will tell the server to retrieve the  username  from
              the certificate. (Added in 7.15.5)

       --ftp-create-dirs
              (FTP/SFTP)  When  an  FTP  or SFTP URL/operation uses a path that doesn't currently
              exist on the server, the standard behavior of curl is to fail. Using  this  option,
              curl will instead attempt to create missing directories.

       --ftp-method [method]
              (FTP)  Control  what method curl should use to reach a file on a FTP(S) server. The
              method argument should be one of the following alternatives:

              multicwd
                     curl does a single CWD operation for each path part in the  given  URL.  For
                     deep hierarchies this means very many commands. This is how RFC 1738 says it
                     should be done. This is the default but the slowest behavior.

              nocwd  curl does no CWD at all. curl will do SIZE, RETR, STOR etc and give  a  full
                     path to the server for all these commands. This is the fastest behavior.

              singlecwd
                     curl  does  one  CWD with the full target directory and then operates on the
                     file "normally" (like in the multicwd case). This is somewhat more standards
                     compliant than 'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.
       (Added in 7.15.1)

       --ftp-pasv
              (FTP)  Use  passive  mode  for the data connection. Passive is the internal default
              behavior, but using this option can be used to  override  a  previous  -P/-ftp-port
              option. (Added in 7.11.0)

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences make no difference.
              Undoing an enforced passive really isn't doable but you must then  instead  enforce
              the correct -P, --ftp-port again.

              Passive  mode means that curl will try the EPSV command first and then PASV, unless
              --disable-epsv is used.

       --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
              (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in  its  response  to
              curl's  PASV  command when curl connects the data connection. Instead curl will re-
              use the same IP address it already uses  for  the  control  connection.  (Added  in
              7.14.2)

              This option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead of PASV.

       --ftp-pret
              (FTP) Tell curl to send a PRET command before PASV (and EPSV). Certain FTP servers,
              mainly drftpd, require this non-standard command for directory listings as well  as
              up and downloads in PASV mode.  (Added in 7.20.x)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc
              (FTP)  Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Shuts down the SSL/TLS layer after authenti-
              cating. The rest of the control channel communication  will  be  unencrypted.  This
              allows  NAT routers to follow the FTP transaction. The default mode is passive. See
              --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode for other modes.  (Added in 7.16.1)

       --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode [active/passive]
              (FTP) Use CCC (Clear Command Channel) Sets the CCC mode. The passive mode will  not
              initiate the shutdown, but instead wait for the server to do it, and will not reply
              to the shutdown from the server. The active mode initiates the shutdown  and  waits
              for a reply from the server.  (Added in 7.16.2)

       --ftp-ssl-control
              (FTP) Require SSL/TLS for the FTP login, clear for transfer.  Allows secure authen-
              tication, but non-encrypted data transfers for efficiency.  Fails the  transfer  if
              the  server  doesn't support SSL/TLS.  (Added in 7.16.0) that can still be used but
              will be removed in a future version.

       --form-string <name=string>
              (HTTP) Similar to --form except that the value string for the  named  parameter  is
              used  literally.  Leading  '@'  and  '<' characters, and the ';type=' string in the
              value have no special meaning. Use this in preference to --form if there's any pos-
              sibility  that the string value may accidentally trigger the '@' or '<' features of
              --form.

       -g, --globoff
              This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set this  option,  you
              can  specify  URLs  that  contain the letters {}[] without having them being inter-
              preted by curl itself. Note that these letters are not normal  legal  URL  contents
              but they should be encoded according to the URI standard.

       -G, --get
              When  used,  this  option  will  make all data specified with -d, --data or --data-
              binary to be used in a HTTP GET request instead of the POST request that  otherwise
              would be used. The data will be appended to the URL with a '?' separator.

              If  used  in combination with -I, the POST data will instead be appended to the URL
              with a HEAD request.

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences make no difference.
              This  is  because  undoing  a  GET  doesn't make sense, but you should then instead
              enforce the alternative method you prefer.

       -H, --header <header>
              (HTTP) Extra header to use when getting a web page. You may specify any  number  of
              extra  headers.  Note that if you should add a custom header that has the same name
              as one of the internal ones curl would use, your externally set header will be used
              instead  of the internal one. This allows you to make even trickier stuff than curl
              would normally do. You should not replace internally set  headers  without  knowing
              perfectly well what you're doing. Remove an internal header by giving a replacement
              without content on the right side of the colon, as in: -H "Host:". If you send  the
              custom  header  with  no-value then its header must be terminated with a semicolon,
              such as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:".

              curl will make sure that each header you add/replace is sent with the  proper  end-
              of-line  marker,  you  should thus not add that as a part of the header content: do
              not add newlines or carriage returns, they will only mess things up for you.

              See also the -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer options.

              This option can be used multiple times to add/replace/remove multiple headers.

       --hostpubmd5 <md5>
              Pass a string containing 32 hexadecimal digits. The string should be  the  128  bit
              MD5  checksum of the remote host's public key, curl will refuse the connection with
              the host unless the md5sums match. This option is only for SCP and SFTP  transfers.
              (Added in 7.17.1)

       --ignore-content-length
              (HTTP)  Ignore  the  Content-Length header. This is particularly useful for servers
              running Apache 1.x, which will report incorrect  Content-Length  for  files  larger
              than 2 gigabytes.

       -i, --include
              (HTTP)  Include the HTTP-header in the output. The HTTP-header includes things like
              server-name, date of the document, HTTP-version and more...

       -I, --head
              (HTTP/FTP/FILE) Fetch the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature the  command  HEAD
              which  this uses to get nothing but the header of a document. When used on a FTP or
              FILE file, curl displays the file size and last modification time only.

       --interface <name>
              Perform an operation using a specified interface. You can enter interface name,  IP
              address or host name. An example could look like:

               curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -j, --junk-session-cookies
              (HTTP)  When  curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this option will make
              it discard all "session cookies". This will basically have the same effect as if  a
              new  session  is  started.  Typical  browsers  always  discard session cookies when
              they're closed down.

       -J, --remote-header-name
              (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use  the  server-specified
              Content-Disposition filename instead of extracting a filename from the URL.

       -k, --insecure
              (SSL)  This option explicitly allows curl to perform "insecure" SSL connections and
              transfers. All SSL connections are attempted to be made secure by using the CA cer-
              tificate  bundle installed by default. This makes all connections considered "inse-
              cure" fail unless -k, --insecure is used.

              See       this       online       resource       for        further        details:
              http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

       -K, --config <config file>
              Specify  which  config  file to read curl arguments from. The config file is a text
              file in which command line arguments can be written which then will be used  as  if
              they  were written on the actual command line. Options and their parameters must be
              specified on the same config file line, separated by whitespace, colon, the  equals
              sign  or  any  combination  thereof (however, the preferred separator is the equals
              sign). If the parameter is to contain whitespace, the parameter  must  be  enclosed
              within  quotes. Within double quotes, the following escape sequences are available:
              \\, \", \t, \n, \r and \v. A backslash preceding any other letter  is  ignored.  If
              the  first column of a config line is a '#' character, the rest of the line will be
              treated as a comment. Only write one option per physical line in the config file.

              Specify the filename to -K, --config as '-' to make curl read the file from stdin.

              Note that to be able to specify a URL in the config file, you need  to  specify  it
              using  the  --url option, and not by simply writing the URL on its own line. So, it
              could look similar to this:

              url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/"

              Long option names can optionally be given in the config file  without  the  initial
              double dashes.

              When  curl  is  invoked,  it always (unless -q is used) checks for a default config
              file and uses it if found. The default config file is checked for in the  following
              places in this order:

              1)  curl  tries  to find the "home dir": It first checks for the CURL_HOME and then
              the HOME environment variables. Failing that, it uses getpwuid() on UNIX-like  sys-
              tems  (which  returns  the home dir given the current user in your system). On Win-
              dows, it then checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort  the  '%USERPRO-
              FILE%\Application Data'.

              2)  On  windows,  if there is no _curlrc file in the home dir, it checks for one in
              the same dir the curl executable is placed. On UNIX-like systems,  it  will  simply
              try to load .curlrc from the determined home dir.

              # --- Example file ---
              # this is a comment
              url = "curl.haxx.se"
              output = "curlhere.html"
              user-agent = "superagent/1.0"

              # and fetch another URL too
              url = "curl.haxx.se/docs/manpage.html"
              -O
              referer = "http://nowhereatall.com/"
              # --- End of example file ---

              This option can be used multiple times to load multiple config files.

       --keepalive-time <seconds>
              This  option  sets  the  time  a  connection  needs  to  remain idle before sending
              keepalive probes and the time between individual keepalive probes. It is  currently
              effective  on  operating systems offering the TCP_KEEPIDLE and TCP_KEEPINTVL socket
              options (meaning Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option has no  effect  if
              --no-keepalive is used. (Added in 7.18.0)

              If  this  option  is  used  multiple times, the last occurrence sets the amount. If
              unspecified, the option defaults to 60 seconds.

       --key <key>
              (SSL/SSH) Private key file name. Allows you to provide your  private  key  in  this
              separate file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --key-type <type>
              (SSL) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key provided private key is.
              DER, PEM, and ENG are supported. If not specified, PEM is assumed.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --krb <level>
              (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The level must be entered and  should
              be  one  of  'clear',  'safe', 'confidential', or 'private'. Should you use a level
              that is not one of these, 'private' will instead be used.

              This option requires a library built with kerberos4 or GSSAPI (GSS-Negotiate)  sup-
              port. This is not very common. Use -V, --version to see if your curl supports it.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -l, --list-only
              (FTP)  When  listing  an FTP directory, this switch forces a name-only view.  Espe-
              cially useful if you want to machine-parse the contents of an FTP  directory  since
              the normal directory view doesn't use a standard look or format.

              This  option  causes  an  FTP  NLST command to be sent.  Some FTP servers list only
              files in their response to NLST; they do not include  subdirectories  and  symbolic
              links.


       -L, --location
              (HTTP/HTTPS) If the server reports that the requested page has moved to a different
              location (indicated with a Location: header and a 3XX response code),  this  option
              will  make  curl  redo  the  request  on  the  new place. If used together with -i,
              --include or -I, --head, headers from all  requested  pages  will  be  shown.  When
              authentication  is  used, curl only sends its credentials to the initial host. If a
              redirect takes curl to a  different  host,  it  won't  be  able  to  intercept  the
              user+password. See also --location-trusted on how to change this. You can limit the
              amount of redirects to follow by using the --max-redirs option.

              When curl follows a redirect and the request is not a plain GET (for  example  POST
              or  PUT), it will do the following request with a GET if the HTTP response was 301,
              302, or 303. If the response code was any other 3xx code,  curl  will  re-send  the
              following request using the same unmodified method.

       --libcurl <file>
              Append  this  option to any ordinary curl command line, and you will get a libcurl-
              using C source code written to the file that does the equivalent of what your  com-
              mand-line operation does!

              If this option is used several times, the last given file name will be used. (Added
              in 7.16.1)

       --limit-rate <speed>
              Specify the maximum transfer rate you want curl to use. This feature is  useful  if
              you  have  a limited pipe and you'd like your transfer not to use your entire band-
              width.

              The given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is appended.   Append-
              ing  'k'  or  'K' will count the number as kilobytes, 'm' or M' makes it megabytes,
              while 'g' or 'G' makes it gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G.

              The given rate is the average speed counted during the entire  transfer.  It  means
              that  curl  might use higher transfer speeds in short bursts, but over time it uses
              no more than the given rate.

              If you also use the -Y, --speed-limit option, that option will take precedence  and
              might  cripple  the  rate-limiting  slightly, to help keeping the speed-limit logic
              working.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --local-port <num>[-num]
              Set a preferred number or range of local port numbers to use for the connection(s).
              Note  that  port numbers by nature are a scarce resource that will be busy at times
              so setting this range to something too narrow might  cause  unnecessary  connection
              setup failures. (Added in 7.15.2)

       --location-trusted
              (HTTP/HTTPS) Like -L, --location, but will allow sending the name + password to all
              hosts that the site may redirect to. This may  or  may  not  introduce  a  security
              breach if the site redirects you to a site to which you'll send your authentication
              info (which is plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication).

       -m, --max-time <seconds>
              Maximum time in seconds that you allow the whole operation to take.  This is useful
              for preventing your batch jobs from hanging for hours due to slow networks or links
              going down.  See also the --connect-timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --mail-auth <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address. This will be used to  specify  the  authentication
              address (identity) of a submitted message that is being relayed to another server.

              (Added in 7.25.0)

       --mail-from <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail should get sent from.

              (Added in 7.20.0)

       --max-filesize <bytes>
              Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to download. If the file requested is
              larger than this value, the transfer will not start and curl will return with  exit
              code 63.

              NOTE:  The file size is not always known prior to download, and for such files this
              option has no effect even if the file transfer ends up being larger than this given
              limit. This concerns both FTP and HTTP transfers.

       --mail-rcpt <address>
              (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail should get sent to. This option
              can be used multiple times to specify many recipients.

              (Added in 7.20.0)

       --max-redirs <num>
              Set maximum number of redirection-followings allowed. If -L,  --location  is  used,
              this  option can be used to prevent curl from following redirections "in absurdum".
              By default, the limit is set to 50 redirections. Set this option to -1 to  make  it
              limitless.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -n, --netrc
              Makes  curl  scan  the .netrc (_netrc on Windows) file in the user's home directory
              for login name and password. This is typically used for FTP on UNIX. If  used  with
              HTTP,  curl  will enable user authentication. See netrc(4) or ftp(1) for details on
              the file format. Curl will not complain if that file doesn't have the right permis-
              sions  (it should not be either world- or group-readable). The environment variable
              "HOME" is used to find the home directory.

              A quick and very simple example of how to setup a .netrc to allow curl  to  FTP  to
              the  machine  host.domain.com  with user name 'myself' and password 'secret' should
              look similar to:

              machine host.domain.com login myself password secret

       -N, --no-buffer
              Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work situations,  curl  will
              use a standard buffered output stream that will have the effect that it will output
              the data in chunks, not necessarily exactly when  the  data  arrives.   Using  this
              option will disable that buffering.

              Note  that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --buffer to
              enforce the buffering.

       --netrc-file
              This option is similar to --netrc, except that you provide the  path  (absolute  or
              relative)  to  the netrc file that Curl should use.  You can only specify one netrc
              file per invocation. If several --netrc-file options are provided,  only  the  last
              one will be used.  (Added in 7.21.5)

              This  option  overrides any use of --netrc as they are mutually exclusive.  It will
              also abide by --netrc-optional if specified.


       --netrc-optional
              Very similar to --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage  optional  and  not
              mandatory as the --netrc option does.


       --negotiate
              (HTTP)  Enables GSS-Negotiate authentication. The GSS-Negotiate method was designed
              by Microsoft and is used in their web applications. It is primarily meant as a sup-
              port for Kerberos5 authentication but may be also used along with another authenti-
              cation method. For more information see IETF draft draft-brezak-spnego-http-04.txt.

              If you want to enable Negotiate for your proxy authentication,  then  use  --proxy-
              negotiate.

              This  option requires a library built with GSSAPI support. This is not very common.
              Use -V, --version to see if your version supports GSS-Negotiate.

              When using this option, you must also provide a fake -u, --user option to  activate
              the  authentication  code properly. Sending a '-u :' is enough as the user name and
              password from the -u option aren't actually used.

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences make no difference.

       --no-keepalive
              Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP connection, as  by  default  curl
              enables them.

              Note  that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --keepalive
              to enforce keepalive.

       --no-sessionid
              (SSL) Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching.  By default all  transfers  are
              done using the cache. Note that while nothing should ever get hurt by attempting to
              reuse SSL session-IDs, there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that
              may require you to disable this in order for you to succeed. (Added in 7.16.0)

              Note  that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --sessionid
              to enforce session-ID caching.

       --noproxy <no-proxy-list>
              Comma-separated list of hosts which do not use a proxy, if one is  specified.   The
              only  wildcard  is  a  single * character, which matches all hosts, and effectively
              disables the proxy. Each name in this list is matched as either a domain which con-
              tains  the  hostname,  or  the  hostname itself. For example, local.com would match
              local.com, local.com:80, and www.local.com, but not  www.notlocal.com.   (Added  in
              7.19.4).

       --ntlm (HTTP)  Enables NTLM authentication. The NTLM authentication method was designed by
              Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers. It is a  proprietary  protocol,  reverse-
              engineered  by  clever  people and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This
              kind of behavior should not be endorsed, you should  encourage  everyone  who  uses
              NTLM  to  switch  to a public and documented authentication method instead, such as
              Digest.

              If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then use --proxy-ntlm.

              This option requires a library built with SSL support. Use -V, --version to see  if
              your curl supports NTLM.

              If this option is used several times, the following occurrences make no difference.

       -o, --output <file>
              Write output to <file> instead of stdout. If you are using {} or [] to fetch multi-
              ple documents, you can use '#' followed by a number in the <file>  specifier.  That
              variable  will  be replaced with the current string for the URL being fetched. Like
              in:

                curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt"

              or use several variables like:

                curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2"

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you have.

              See also the --create-dirs option to  create  the  local  directories  dynamically.
              Specifying  the  output  as '-' (a single dash) will force the output to be done to
              stdout.

       -O, --remote-name
              Write output to a local file named like the remote file we get. (Only the file part
              of the remote file is used, the path is cut off.)

              The  remote  file  name  to use for saving is extracted from the given URL, nothing
              else.

              Consequentially, the file will be saved in the current working  directory.  If  you
              want  the file saved in a different directory, make sure you change current working
              directory before you invoke curl with the -O, --remote-name flag!

              You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you have.

       -p, --proxytunnel
              When an HTTP proxy is used (-x, --proxy), this option will cause non-HTTP protocols
              to  attempt  to tunnel through the proxy instead of merely using it to do HTTP-like
              operations. The tunnel approach is made with the HTTP  proxy  CONNECT  request  and
              requires  that the proxy allows direct connect to the remote port number curl wants
              to tunnel through to.

       -P, --ftp-port <address>
              (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener roles when connecting with FTP.  This
              switch  makes curl use active mode. In practice, curl then tells the server to con-
              nect back to the client's specified address and port, while passive mode  asks  the
              server  to  setup  an IP address and port for it to connect to. <address> should be
              one of:

              interface
                     i.e "eth0" to specify which interface's IP address you  want  to  use  (Unix
                     only)

              IP address
                     i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address

              host name
                     i.e "my.host.domain" to specify the machine

              -      make curl pick the same IP address that is already used for the control con-
                     nection

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. Disable the use  of  PORT
       with  --ftp-pasv.  Disable  the  attempt  to use the EPRT command instead of PORT by using
       --disable-eprt. EPRT is really PORT++.

       Starting in 7.19.5, you can append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the address,  to  tell
       curl  what  TCP  port range to use. That means you specify a port range, from a lower to a
       higher number. A single number works as well, but do note that it increases  the  risk  of
       failure since the port may not be available.

       --pass <phrase>
              (SSL/SSH) Passphrase for the private key

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --post301
              Tells  curl  to  respect  RFC  2616/10.3.2  and  not convert POST requests into GET
              requests when following a 301 redirection. The non-RFC behaviour is  ubiquitous  in
              web  browsers, so curl does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. How-
              ever, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such a  redirection.  This
              option is meaningful only when using -L, --location (Added in 7.17.1)

       --post302
              Tells  curl  to  respect  RFC  2616/10.3.2  and  not convert POST requests into GET
              requests when following a 302 redirection. The non-RFC behaviour is  ubiquitous  in
              web  browsers, so curl does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. How-
              ever, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such a  redirection.  This
              option is meaningful only when using -L, --location (Added in 7.19.1)

       --proto <protocols>
              Tells  curl  to  use  the listed protocols for its initial retrieval. Protocols are
              evaluated left to right, are comma separated, and  are  each  a  protocol  name  or
              'all', optionally prefixed by zero or more modifiers. Available modifiers are:

              +  Permit  this  protocol  in  addition to protocols already permitted (this is the
                 default if no modifier is used).

              -  Deny this protocol, removing it from the list of protocols already permitted.

              =  Permit only this protocol (ignoring the list already permitted), though  subject
                 to later modification by subsequent entries in the comma separated list.

              For example:

              --proto -ftps  uses the default protocols, but disables ftps

              --proto -all,https,+http
                             only enables http and https

              --proto =http,https
                             also only enables http and https

              Unknown  protocols  produce  a warning. This allows scripts to safely rely on being
              able to disable potentially dangerous protocols, without relying upon  support  for
              that protocol being built into curl to avoid an error.

              This  option  can  be  used multiple times, in which case the effect is the same as
              concatenating the protocols into one instance of the option.

              (Added in 7.20.2)

       --proto-redir <protocols>
              Tells curl to use the listed protocols after a redirect. See --proto for how proto-
              cols are represented.

              (Added in 7.20.2)

       --proxy-anyauth
              Tells  curl  to  pick  a suitable authentication method when communicating with the
              given proxy. This might cause  an  extra  request/response  round-trip.  (Added  in
              7.13.2)

       --proxy-basic
              Tells  curl  to  use  HTTP  Basic  authentication when communicating with the given
              proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a remote host. Basic is the default
              authentication method curl uses with proxies.

       --proxy-digest
              Tells  curl  to  use  HTTP  Digest authentication when communicating with the given
              proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with a remote host.

       --proxy-negotiate
              Tells curl to use HTTP Negotiate authentication when communicating with  the  given
              proxy.  Use  --negotiate  for enabling HTTP Negotiate with a remote host. (Added in
              7.17.1)

       --proxy-ntlm
              Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM authentication when communicating with the given proxy.
              Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote host.

       --proxy1.0 <proxyhost[:port]>
              Use  the  specified  HTTP  1.0  proxy.  If  the port number is not specified, it is
              assumed at port 1080.

              The only difference between this and the HTTP proxy option (-x, --proxy),  is  that
              attempts to use CONNECT through the proxy will specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead
              of the default HTTP 1.1.

       --pubkey <key>
              (SSH) Public key file name. Allows you to provide your public key in this  separate
              file.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -q     If used as the first parameter on the command line, the curlrc config file will not
              be read and used. See the -K, --config for  details  on  the  default  config  file
              search path.

       -Q, --quote <command>
              (FTP/SFTP)  Send  an arbitrary command to the remote FTP or SFTP server. Quote com-
              mands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place (just after the initial PWD  command
              in  an  FTP  transfer, to be exact). To make commands take place after a successful
              transfer, prefix them with a dash '-'.  To make commands be sent after libcurl  has
              changed the working directory, just before the transfer command(s), prefix the com-
              mand with a '+' (this is only supported for FTP). You may  specify  any  number  of
              commands.  If the server returns failure for one of the commands, the entire opera-
              tion will be aborted. You must send syntactically correct FTP commands as  RFC  959
              defines  to FTP servers, or one of the commands listed below to SFTP servers.  This
              option can be used multiple times. When speaking to a FTP server, prefix  the  com-
              mand  with an asterisk (*) to make libcurl continue even if the command fails as by
              default curl will stop at first failure.

              SFTP is a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, libcurl interprets SFTP  quote  commands
              itself  before sending them to the server.  File names may be quoted shell-style to
              embed spaces or special characters.  Following is the list of  all  supported  SFTP
              quote commands:

              chgrp group file
                     The chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named by the file operand to
                     the group ID specified by the group operand. The group operand is a  decimal
                     integer group ID.

              chmod mode file
                     The  chmod  command  modifies  the file mode bits of the specified file. The
                     mode operand is an octal integer mode number.

              chown user file
                     The chown command sets the owner of the file named by the  file  operand  to
                     the  user  ID  specified  by the user operand. The user operand is a decimal
                     integer user ID.

              ln source_file target_file
                     The ln and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the target_file  loca-
                     tion pointing to the source_file location.

              mkdir directory_name
                     The mkdir command creates the directory named by the directory_name operand.

              pwd    The  pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the current working direc-
                     tory.

              rename source target
                     The rename command renames the file or directory named by the source operand
                     to the destination path named by the target operand.

              rm file
                     The rm command removes the file specified by the file operand.

              rmdir directory
                     The rmdir command removes the directory entry specified by the directory op-
                     erand, provided it is empty.

              symlink source_file target_file
                     See ln.

       -r, --range <range>
              (HTTP/FTP/SFTP/FILE) Retrieve  a  byte  range  (i.e  a  partial  document)  from  a
              HTTP/1.1,  FTP  or SFTP server or a local FILE. Ranges can be specified in a number
              of ways.

              0-499     specifies the first 500 bytes

              500-999   specifies the second 500 bytes

              -500      specifies the last 500 bytes

              9500-     specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward

              0-0,-1    specifies the first and last byte only(*)(H)

              500-700,600-799
                        specifies 300 bytes from offset 500(H)

              100-199,500-599
                        specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*)(H)

       (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply with a multipart response!

       Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop' fields of the 'start-stop'
       range  syntax.  If a non-digit character is given in the range, the server's response will
       be unspecified, depending on the server's configuration.

       You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have this feature  enabled,  so
       that when you attempt to get a range, you'll instead get the whole document.

       FTP  and SFTP range downloads only support the simple 'start-stop' syntax (optionally with
       one of the numbers omitted). FTP use depends on the extended FTP command SIZE.

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -R, --remote-time
              When used, this will make libcurl attempt to figure out the timestamp of the remote
              file, and if that is available make the local file get that same timestamp.

       --random-file <file>
              (SSL)  Specify  the  path name to file containing what will be considered as random
              data. The data is used to seed the random engine for SSL connections.  See also the
              --egd-file option.

       --raw  When  used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding of content or transfer encodings
              and instead makes them passed on unaltered, raw. (Added in 7.16.2)

       --remote-name-all
              This option changes the default action for all given URLs to be dealt  with  as  if
              -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if you want to disable that for a spe-
              cific URL after --remote-name-all has been used, you  must  use  "-o  -"  or  --no-
              remote-name. (Added in 7.19.0)

       --resolve <host:port:address>
              Provide  a  custom  address  for a specific host and port pair. Using this, you can
              make the curl requests(s) use a specified address and prevent  the  otherwise  nor-
              mally  resolved  address  to  be used. Consider it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative
              provided on the command line. The port number should be the  number  used  for  the
              specific  protocol  the host will be used for. It means you need several entries if
              you want to provide address for the same host but different ports.

              This option can be used many times to add many host names to resolve.

              (Added in 7.21.3)

       --retry <num>
              If a transient error is returned when curl tries to perform  a  transfer,  it  will
              retry  this number of times before giving up. Setting the number to 0 makes curl do
              no retries (which is the default). Transient error means either: a timeout, an  FTP
              4xx response code or an HTTP 5xx response code.

              When  curl is about to retry a transfer, it will first wait one second and then for
              all forthcoming retries it will double the waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes
              which  then  will  be the delay between the rest of the retries.  By using --retry-
              delay you disable this exponential backoff algorithm. See also --retry-max-time  to
              limit the total time allowed for retries. (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is used multiple times, the last occurrence decide the amount.

       --retry-delay <seconds>
              Make  curl  sleep  this amount of time before each retry when a transfer has failed
              with a transient error (it changes  the  default  backoff  time  algorithm  between
              retries).  This  option  is  only interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this
              delay to zero will make curl use the default backoff time.  (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is used multiple times, the last occurrence determines the amount.

       --retry-max-time <seconds>
              The retry timer is reset before the first transfer attempt. Retries will be done as
              usual  (see  --retry)  as long as the timer hasn't reached this given limit. Notice
              that if the timer hasn't reached the limit, the request will be made and while per-
              forming,  it  may  take  longer  than  this  given  time  period. To limit a single
              request's maximum time, use -m, --max-time.  Set this option to zero to not timeout
              retries. (Added in 7.12.3)

              If this option is used multiple times, the last occurrence determines the amount.

       -s, --silent
              Silent  or  quiet  mode.  Don't  show progress meter or error messages.  Makes Curl
              mute.

       -S, --show-error
              When used with -s it makes curl show an error message if it fails.

       --ssl  (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection.  Reverts to  a  non-
              secure  connection  if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS.  See also --ftp-ssl-con-
              trol and --ssl-reqd for different levels of encryption required. (Added in 7.20.0)

              This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0). That option name can
              still be used but will be removed in a future version.

       --ssl-reqd
              (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection.  Terminates the connec-
              tion if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS. (Added in 7.20.0)

              This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl-reqd (added  in  7.15.5).  That  option
              name can still be used but will be removed in a future version.

       --ssl-allow-beast
              (SSL)  This  option  tells  curl to not work around a security flaw in the SSL3 and
              TLS1.0 protocols known as BEAST.  If this option isn't used, the SSL layer may  use
              work-arounds known to cause interoperability problems with some older SSL implemen-
              tations. WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this flag  you
              ask for exactly that.  (Added in 7.25.0)

       --socks4 <host[:port]>
              Use  the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed
              at port 1080. (Added in 7.15.2)

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually  exclu-
              sive.

              Since  7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4 proxy with
              -x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks4a <host[:port]>
              Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed
              at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

              This  option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclu-
              sive.

              Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4a proxy with
              -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --socks5-hostname <host[:port]>
              Use  the  specified  SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the host name). If the
              port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0)

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually  exclu-
              sive.

              Since  7.21.7,  this  option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 hostname
              proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h:// protocol prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. (This  option  was
              previously wrongly documented and used as --socks without the number appended.)

       --socks5 <host[:port]>
              Use  the  specified  SOCKS5  proxy - but resolve the host name locally. If the port
              number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080.

              This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually  exclu-
              sive.

              Since  7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 proxy with
              -x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. (This  option  was
              previously wrongly documented and used as --socks without the number appended.)

              This option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS or LDAP.

       --socks5-gssapi-service <servicename>
              The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn. This option allows
              you to change it.

              Examples: --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-service sockd would use  sockd/proxy-
              name   --socks5   proxy-name   --socks5-gssapi-service  sockd/real-name  would  use
              sockd/real-name for cases where the proxy-name does not match the  principal  name.
              (Added in 7.19.4).

       --socks5-gssapi-nec
              As part of the gssapi negotiation a protection mode is negotiated. RFC 1961 says in
              section 4.3/4.4 it should be protected, but the NEC reference  implementation  does
              not.  The option --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected exchange of the protec-
              tion mode negotiation. (Added in 7.19.4).

       --stderr <file>
              Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If the file name is  a
              plain '-', it is instead written to stdout.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -t, --telnet-option <OPT=val>
              Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are:

              TTYPE=<term> Sets the terminal type.

              XDISPLOC=<X display> Sets the X display location.

              NEW_ENV=<var,val> Sets an environment variable.

       -T, --upload-file <file>
              This transfers the specified local file to the remote URL. If there is no file part
              in the specified URL, Curl will append the local file name. NOTE that you must  use
              a  trailing  /  on the last directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file
              name or curl will think that your last directory name is the remote  file  name  to
              use. That will most likely cause the upload operation to fail. If this is used on a
              HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will be used.

              Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of a given file.  Alter-
              nately,  the file name "." (a single period) may be specified instead of "-" to use
              stdin in non-blocking mode to allow reading server  output  while  stdin  is  being
              uploaded.

              You  can specify one -T for each URL on the command line. Each -T + URL pair speci-
              fies what to upload and to where. curl also supports "globbing" of the -T argument,
              meaning  that  you  can upload multiple files to a single URL by using the same URL
              globbing style supported in the URL, like this:

              curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com

              or even

              curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/

       --tcp-nodelay
              Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man  page  for  details
              about this option. (Added in 7.11.2)

       --tftp-blksize <value>
              (TFTP)  Set  TFTP  BLKSIZE  option (must be >512). This is the block size that curl
              will try to use when transferring data to or from a TFTP  server.  By  default  512
              bytes will be used.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

              (Added in 7.20.0)

       --tlsauthtype <authtype>
              Set  TLS  authentication  type.  Currently, the only supported option is "SRP", for
              TLS-SRP (RFC 5054). If --tlsuser and --tlspassword are specified but  --tlsauthtype
              is not, then this option defaults to "SRP".  (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlsuser <user>
              Set   username   for   use  with  the  TLS  authentication  method  specified  with
              --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlspassword also be set.  (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tlspassword <password>
              Set  password  for  use  with  the  TLS  authentication   method   specified   with
              --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlsuser also be set.  (Added in 7.21.4)

       --tr-encoding
              (HTTP)  Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one of the algorithms
              libcurl supports, and uncompress the data while receiving it.

              (Added in 7.21.6)

       --trace <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, including  descriptive
              information,  to the given output file. Use "-" as filename to have the output sent
              to stdout.

              This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace-ascii.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-ascii <file>
              Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, including  descriptive
              information,  to the given output file. Use "-" as filename to have the output sent
              to stdout.

              This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part  and  only  shows  the
              ASCII  part  of  the dump. It makes smaller output that might be easier to read for
              untrained humans.

              This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --trace-time
              Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose line that curl displays.  (Added  in
              7.14.0)

       -u, --user <user:password>
              Specify  the user name and password to use for server authentication. Overrides -n,
              --netrc and --netrc-optional.

              If you just give the user name (without entering a colon) curl will  prompt  for  a
              password.

              If  you  use  an SSPI-enabled curl binary and do NTLM authentication, you can force
              curl to pick up the user name and password from your environment by simply specify-
              ing a single colon with this option: "-u :".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -U, --proxy-user <user:password>
              Specify the user name and password to use for proxy authentication.

              If  you  use  an SSPI-enabled curl binary and do NTLM authentication, you can force
              curl to pick up the user name and password from your environment by simply specify-
              ing a single colon with this option: "-U :".

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       --url <URL>
              Specify a URL to fetch. This option is mostly handy when you want to specify URL(s)
              in a config file.

              This option may be used any number of times. To control where this URL is  written,
              use the -o, --output or the -O, --remote-name options.

       -v, --verbose
              Makes  the  fetching  more  verbose/talkative.  Mostly useful for debugging. A line
              starting with '>' means "header  data"  sent  by  curl,  '<'  means  "header  data"
              received by curl that is hidden in normal cases, and a line starting with '*' means
              additional info provided by curl.

              Note that if you only want HTTP headers in the output, -i, --include might  be  the
              option you're looking for.

              If  you  think  this  option  still doesn't give you enough details, consider using
              --trace or --trace-ascii instead.

              This option overrides previous uses of --trace-ascii or --trace.

              Use -s, --silent to make curl quiet.

       -w, --write-out <format>
              Defines what to display on stdout after a completed and successful  operation.  The
              format  is a string that may contain plain text mixed with any number of variables.
              The string can be specified as "string", to get read from  a  particular  file  you
              specify  it  "@filename"  and  to tell curl to read the format from stdin you write
              "@-".

              The variables present in the output format will be substituted by the value or text
              that  curl  thinks  fit, as described below. All variables are specified as %{vari-
              able_name} and to output a normal % you just write them as %%.  You  can  output  a
              newline by using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t.

              NOTE:  The  %-symbol is a special symbol in the win32-environment, where all occur-
              rences of % must be doubled when using this option.

              The variables available at this point are:

              url_effective  The URL that was fetched last. This is  most  meaningful  if  you've
                             told curl to follow location: headers.

              filename_effective
                             The ultimate filename that curl writes out to. This is only meaning-
                             ful if curl is told to write to a file  with  the  --remote-name  or
                             --output  option. It's most useful in combination with the --remote-
                             header-name option. (Added in 7.25.1)

              http_code      The numerical response code that was found  in  the  last  retrieved
                             HTTP(S)  or  FTP(s)  transfer. In 7.18.2 the alias response_code was
                             added to show the same info.

              http_connect   The numerical code that was found  in  the  last  response  (from  a
                             proxy) to a curl CONNECT request. (Added in 7.12.4)

              time_total     The total time, in seconds, that the full operation lasted. The time
                             will be displayed with millisecond resolution.

              time_namelookup
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the name  resolv-
                             ing was completed.

              time_connect   The  time,  in seconds, it took from the start until the TCP connect
                             to the remote host (or proxy) was completed.

              time_appconnect
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start until  the  SSL/SSH/etc
                             connect/handshake  to  the  remote  host  was  completed.  (Added in
                             7.19.0)

              time_pretransfer
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the file transfer
                             was just about to begin. This includes all pre-transfer commands and
                             negotiations  that  are  specific  to  the  particular   protocol(s)
                             involved.

              time_redirect  The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection steps include name
                             lookup, connect, pretransfer and transfer before the final  transac-
                             tion  was  started.  time_redirect shows the complete execution time
                             for multiple redirections. (Added in 7.12.3)

              time_starttransfer
                             The time, in seconds, it took from the start until  the  first  byte
                             was just about to be transferred. This includes time_pretransfer and
                             also the time the server needed to calculate the result.

              size_download  The total amount of bytes that were downloaded.

              size_upload    The total amount of bytes that were uploaded.

              size_header    The total amount of bytes of the downloaded headers.

              size_request   The total amount of bytes that were sent in the HTTP request.

              speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for the complete down-
                             load. Bytes per second.

              speed_upload   The average upload speed that curl measured for the complete upload.
                             Bytes per second.

              content_type   The Content-Type of the requested document, if there was any.

              num_connects   Number of new connects  made  in  the  recent  transfer.  (Added  in
                             7.12.3)

              num_redirects  Number  of  redirects  that  were followed in the request. (Added in
                             7.12.3)

              redirect_url   When a HTTP request was made without -L to  follow  redirects,  this
                             variable  will  show  the  actual  URL a redirect would take you to.
                             (Added in 7.18.2)

              ftp_entry_path The initial path libcurl ended up in when logging on to  the  remote
                             FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4)

              ssl_verify_result
                             The  result  of  the  SSL  peer  certificate  verification  that was
                             requested. 0  means  the  verification  was  successful.  (Added  in
                             7.19.0)

       If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -x, --proxy <[protocol://][user:password@]proxyhost[:port]>
              Use the specified HTTP proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at
              port 1080.

              This option overrides existing environment variables that set the proxy to use.  If
              there's  an  environment variable setting a proxy, you can set proxy to "" to over-
              ride it.

              All operations that are performed over a HTTP proxy will transparently be converted
              to HTTP. It means that certain protocol specific operations might not be available.
              This is not the case if you can tunnel through the  proxy,  as  one  with  the  -p,
              --proxytunnel option.

              User  and  password  that  might be provided in the proxy string are URL decoded by
              libcurl. This allows you to pass in special characters such as @ by  using  %40  or
              pass in a colon with %3a.

              The  proxy  host can be specified the exact same way as the proxy environment vari-
              ables, including the protocol prefix (http://) and the embedded user + password.

              From 7.21.7, the proxy string may be specified with a protocol:// prefix to specify
              alternative  proxy protocols. Use socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to
              request the specific SOCKS version to be used. No protocol specified,  http://  and
              all others will be treated as HTTP proxies.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -X, --request <command>
              (HTTP)  Specifies  a  custom request method to use when communicating with the HTTP
              server.  The specified request will be used instead of the  method  otherwise  used
              (which  defaults  to GET). Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for details and explana-
              tions. Common additional HTTP requests include PUT and DELETE,  but  related  tech-
              nologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE and more.

              (FTP)  Specifies  a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when doing file lists
              with FTP.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.


       --xattr
              When saving output to a file, this option tells curl to store certain file metadata
              in  extened  file  attributes.  Currently,  the URL is stored in the xdg.origin.url
              attribute and, for HTTP, the content type is stored in the mime_type attribute.  If
              the file system does not support extended attributes, a warning is issued.


       -y, --speed-time <time>
              If  a  download  is  slower  than  speed-limit bytes per second during a speed-time
              period, the download gets aborted. If speed-time is used, the  default  speed-limit
              will be 1 unless set with -Y.

              This  option controls transfers and thus will not affect slow connects etc. If this
              is a concern for you, try the --connect-timeout option.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -Y, --speed-limit <speed>
              If a download is slower than this given speed (in bytes per second) for  speed-time
              seconds it gets aborted. speed-time is set with -y and is 30 if not set.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -z/--time-cond <date expression>|<file>
              (HTTP/FTP)  Request  a  file  that  has been modified later than the given time and
              date, or one that has been modified before that time. The <date expression> can  be
              all  sorts of date strings or if it doesn't match any internal ones, it is taken as
              a filename and tries to get the modification date (mtime) from <file> instead.  See
              the curl_getdate(3) man pages for date expression details.

              Start the date expression with a dash (-) to make it request for a document that is
              older than the given date/time, default is a document that is newer than the speci-
              fied date/time.

              If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.

       -h, --help
              Usage help.

       -M, --manual
              Manual. Display the huge help text.

       -V, --version
              Displays information about curl and the libcurl version it uses.

              The  first  line  includes  the  full  version of curl, libcurl and other 3rd party
              libraries linked with the executable.

              The second line (starts with "Protocols:") shows all protocols that libcurl reports
              to support.

              The third line (starts with "Features:") shows specific features libcurl reports to
              offer. Available features include:

              IPv6   You can use IPv6 with this.

              krb4   Krb4 for FTP is supported.

              SSL    HTTPS and FTPS are supported.

              libz   Automatic decompression of compressed files over HTTP is supported.

              NTLM   NTLM authentication is supported.

              GSS-Negotiate
                     Negotiate authentication and krb5 for FTP is supported.

              Debug  This curl uses a libcurl built with Debug. This enables more  error-tracking
                     and memory debugging etc. For curl-developers only!

              AsynchDNS
                     This curl uses asynchronous name resolves.

              SPNEGO SPNEGO Negotiate authentication is supported.

              Largefile
                     This curl supports transfers of large files, files larger than 2GB.

              IDN    This curl supports IDN - international domain names.

              SSPI   SSPI  is  supported.  If  you  use NTLM and set a blank user name, curl will
                     authenticate with your current user and password.

              TLS-SRP
                     SRP (Secure Remote Password) authentication is supported for TLS.

FILES
       ~/.curlrc
              Default config file, see -K, --config for details.

ENVIRONMENT
       The environment variables can be specified in lower case or upper  case.  The  lower  case
       version has precedence. http_proxy is an exception as it is only available in lower case.

       Using  an  environment  variable to set the proxy has the same effect as using the --proxy
       option.


       http_proxy [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTP.

       HTTPS_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for HTTPS.

       [url-protocol]_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use for [url-protocol], where the protocol is  a  protocol
              that  curl  supports  and  as specified in a URL. FTP, FTPS, POP3, IMAP, SMTP, LDAP
              etc.

       ALL_PROXY [protocol://]<host>[:port]
              Sets the proxy server to use if no protocol-specific proxy is set.

       NO_PROXY <comma-separated list of hosts>
              list of host names that shouldn't go through any proxy. If set to  a  asterisk  '*'
              only, it matches all hosts.

PROXY PROTOCOL PREFIXES
       Since  curl version 7.21.7, the proxy string may be specified with a protocol:// prefix to
       specify alternative proxy protocols.

       If no protocol is specified in the proxy string or if the string doesn't match a supported
       one, the proxy will be treated as a HTTP proxy.

       The supported proxy protocol prefixes are as follows:

       socks4://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4

       socks4a://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks4a

       socks5://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5

       socks5h://
              Makes it the equivalent of --socks5-hostname

EXIT CODES
       There are a bunch of different error codes and their corresponding error messages that may
       appear during bad conditions. At the time of this writing, the exit codes are:

       1      Unsupported protocol. This build of curl has no support for this protocol.

       2      Failed to initialize.

       3      URL malformed. The syntax was not correct.

       4      A feature or option that was needed to perform the desired request was not  enabled
              or  was explicitly disabled at build-time. To make curl able to do this, you proba-
              bly need another build of libcurl!

       5      Couldn't resolve proxy. The given proxy host could not be resolved.

       6      Couldn't resolve host. The given remote host was not resolved.

       7      Failed to connect to host.

       8      FTP weird server reply. The server sent data curl couldn't parse.

       9      FTP access denied. The server denied login  or  denied  access  to  the  particular
              resource  or  directory  you  wanted  to reach. Most often you tried to change to a
              directory that doesn't exist on the server.

       11     FTP weird PASS reply. Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the PASS request.

       13     FTP weird PASV reply, Curl couldn't parse the reply sent to the PASV request.

       14     FTP weird 227 format. Curl couldn't parse the 227-line the server sent.

       15     FTP can't get host. Couldn't resolve the host IP we got in the 227-line.

       17     FTP couldn't set binary. Couldn't change transfer method to binary.

       18     Partial file. Only a part of the file was transferred.

       19     FTP couldn't download/access the given file, the RETR (or similar) command failed.

       21     FTP quote error. A quote command returned error from the server.

       22     HTTP page not retrieved. The requested url was not found or returned another  error
              with  the  HTTP error code being 400 or above. This return code only appears if -f,
              --fail is used.

       23     Write error. Curl couldn't write data to a local filesystem or similar.

       25     FTP couldn't STOR file. The server denied the STOR operation, used for FTP  upload-
              ing.

       26     Read error. Various reading problems.

       27     Out of memory. A memory allocation request failed.

       28     Operation  timeout. The specified time-out period was reached according to the con-
              ditions.

       30     FTP PORT failed. The PORT command failed. Not all FTP servers support the PORT com-
              mand, try doing a transfer using PASV instead!

       31     FTP  couldn't  use  REST. The REST command failed. This command is used for resumed
              FTP transfers.

       33     HTTP range error. The range "command" didn't work.

       34     HTTP post error. Internal post-request generation error.

       35     SSL connect error. The SSL handshaking failed.

       36     FTP bad download resume. Couldn't continue an earlier aborted download.

       37     FILE couldn't read file. Failed to open the file. Permissions?

       38     LDAP cannot bind. LDAP bind operation failed.

       39     LDAP search failed.

       41     Function not found. A required LDAP function was not found.

       42     Aborted by callback. An application told curl to abort the operation.

       43     Internal error. A function was called with a bad parameter.

       45     Interface error. A specified outgoing interface could not be used.

       47     Too many redirects. When following redirects, curl hit the maximum amount.

       48     Unknown option specified to libcurl. This indicates that you passed a weird  option
              to curl that was passed on to libcurl and rejected. Read up in the manual!

       49     Malformed telnet option.

       51     The peer's SSL certificate or SSH MD5 fingerprint was not OK.

       52     The server didn't reply anything, which here is considered an error.

       53     SSL crypto engine not found.

       54     Cannot set SSL crypto engine as default.

       55     Failed sending network data.

       56     Failure in receiving network data.

       58     Problem with the local certificate.

       59     Couldn't use specified SSL cipher.

       60     Peer certificate cannot be authenticated with known CA certificates.

       61     Unrecognized transfer encoding.

       62     Invalid LDAP URL.

       63     Maximum file size exceeded.

       64     Requested FTP SSL level failed.

       65     Sending the data requires a rewind that failed.

       66     Failed to initialise SSL Engine.

       67     The user name, password, or similar was not accepted and curl failed to log in.

       68     File not found on TFTP server.

       69     Permission problem on TFTP server.

       70     Out of disk space on TFTP server.

       71     Illegal TFTP operation.

       72     Unknown TFTP transfer ID.

       73     File already exists (TFTP).

       74     No such user (TFTP).

       75     Character conversion failed.

       76     Character conversion functions required.

       77     Problem with reading the SSL CA cert (path? access rights?).

       78     The resource referenced in the URL does not exist.

       79     An unspecified error occurred during the SSH session.

       80     Failed to shut down the SSL connection.

       82     Could not load CRL file, missing or wrong format (added in 7.19.0).

       83     Issuer check failed (added in 7.19.0).

       84     The FTP PRET command failed

       85     RTSP: mismatch of CSeq numbers

       86     RTSP: mismatch of Session Identifiers

       87     unable to parse FTP file list

       88     FTP chunk callback reported error

       XX     More  error  codes will appear here in future releases. The existing ones are meant
              to never change.

AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS
       Daniel Stenberg is the main author, but the whole list of contributors  is  found  in  the
       separate THANKS file.

WWW
       http://curl.haxx.se

FTP
       ftp://ftp.sunet.se/pub/www/utilities/curl/

SEE ALSO
       ftp(1), wget(1)



Curl 7.25.0                              16 February 2012                                 curl(1)